According to specialists, diabetes affects life expectancy by 4 to 10 years and increases the chance of mortality owing to other diabetes-related co-morbidities. Heart attacks, renal failures, and infections are examples of co-morbidities.
Therefore, people with diabetes should undergo the following tests:
- Fasting Blood Sugar Test: In this test, blood sample is taken after about 8 hours of fasting (Overnight). A fasting blood sugar level below 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) — 5.6 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) is considered normal, the blood sugar level from 100 to 125 mg/dL (5.6 to 7.0 mmol/L) is considered prediabetes which is sometimes called impaired fasting glucose while a fasting blood sugar level of 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) or higher indicates type 2 diabetes.
- HbA1C: This test measures the percentage of your red blood cells that have sugar-coated hemoglobin for past few months. The higher your blood sugar levels, the more hemoglobin you’ll have with sugar attached. It is done using a sample of blood from a finger or from your arm. An A1C below 5.7% is normal. An A1C level of 6.5% or higher on two separate tests shows that you have diabetes while A1C around 5.7 and 6.4 percent shows prediabetic conditions.
- A Complete Blood Count (CBC):In this test, levels of blood components like RBC, WBC, Platelets, Haemoglobin etc are checked by taking the Blood Sample. Increase or decrease in component levels from the normal range shows that the person tested may have the related medical problems.
- Lipid Profile: Diabetic patients must get the screening of their Cholestrol levels as chances of Heart Diseases are increased in their case. This test is done to measure the amount of “good” and “bad” cholesterol and triglycerides, a type of fat, in your blood. It includes Total Cholesterol, LDL & HDL Cholesterol and Triglycerides. Generally total cholesterol should be under 200 mg/dL. Ideally, the LDL cholesterol should be less than 70 mg/dL and the HDL should be 50 mg/dL or higher while the triglyceride levels should be less than 150 mg/dL. If only HDL and total cholesterol levels are being checked, one may eat beforehand, however, if a complete lipid profile diagnosis is done, one should avoid eating or drinking anything other than water for nine to 12 hours before the test.
- Post Prandial Glucose Test (PPBS): In this test, level of glucose is measured in blood after 2 hours of eating food. This test is done to see how your body responds to sugar and starch after you eat a meal. One has to fast for 12 hours before the test and then eat a meal with at least 75 grams of carbohydrates. Then after two-hour waiting period blood sample is taken. One should not do exercise during these two hours as it can increase blood sugar levels while Pregnant women are not required to do fasting.
- Oral glucose tolerance test: This test measures your body’s ability to use sugar after drinking a standard amount in a sugary drink. In a modified version of this test, Gestational Diabetes is diagnosed which is a type of diabetes developed during pregnancy.