Millions of people died around the world as a result of the coronavirus illness (COVID-19) pandemic. Non-pharmaceutical interventions were initially utilised widely to prevent disease and death. Vaccines were included to the European Union’s treatment resources in December 2020. The impact of vaccines on older people in real-world settings, as well as results from phase 3 and phase 4 clinical studies, demonstrated that they were highly successful.
Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2), Janssen-Oxford-AstraZeneca (hAdOx1-S-AZD1222), and Moderna are among the vaccines that have been approved for use in the European Union (mRNA-1273). Spain is notorious for having the world’s highest incidence of COVID-19-related sickness and death, particularly in the Aragon region. Vaccines from Oxford-AstraZeneca, Moderna, and Pfizer-BioNTech were widely used in Spain and Aragon. Later, the Janssen vaccine was included in the vaccination campaign. According to studies, 44 percent of Aragon’s population aged 18 and up had received the first dosage, while 24.5 percent of the population had been fully vaccinated as of May 31, 2021.
About the study
Participants had to be 16 years old or older, have no previous SARS-CoV-2 infections, have real-time polymerase chain reaction reverse transcription (RT-PCR) confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, and have positive antigen test or immunoglobulin G test for SARS-CoV-2 infections before December 27, 2020 to be eligible for the study. Individuals of all ages, important occupations, and people with high-risk conditions all received different immunizations at different times. The Janssen vaccine was also left out of the study because to a lack of doses. compared the effectiveness of the Pfizer-BioNTech, Moderna, and Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines in preventing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections.
The vaccination status of the subjects was tracked until the conclusion of the trial period or until death from SARS-CoV-2, whichever came first. After 12 days after receiving dose 1 of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, 14 days after receiving the first dose of the Moderna vaccine, and 21 days after receiving the first dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, the individuals were considered exposed. Exposure was determined as seven days post-second dose for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine and 14 days post-dose 2 for the Moderna vaccine for the second dosage. In patients under the age of 60, the second dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca was discontinued.
The number of SARS-CoV-2 tests administered in the previous six months was determined, as well as sex, age, weekly cumulative incidence (WCI) of SARS-CoV-2 infection in each primary care service area, work or residence in nursing or residential facilities. The electronic medical record system was used to retrieve information on the vaccine registration and laboratory testing for SARS-CoV-2.
According to the findings, 242,142 people were vaccinated with dose one of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine and 212,419 with dose two, 32,522 people were vaccinated with dose one of the Moderna vaccine and 15,660 with dose 2, 97,492 people were vaccinated with dose one of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, and 592,102 people were unvaccinated.
According to the findings, 25,767 unvaccinated subjects developed SARS-CoV-2 infections. There were 463 positive infections among individuals who received dose one of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, and 280 positive infections among those who received both doses. There were 28 positive infections among individuals who received dose one of the Moderna vaccine, and 18 positive infections among those who received both doses. 230 people who got the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine tested positive for illness.
After dosage one, the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine had a 23.5 percent unadjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) and 76.1 percent after dose two. After dose one, the Moderna vaccine had 69.2 percent unadjusted VE and 78.4 percent after dose two.
After dosage one, the adjusted VE for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was determined to be 20.8 percent and 70 percent, respectively. After dosage one, the adjusted VE for the Moderna vaccine was 52.8 percent, and after dose two, it was 70.3 percent. After dosage one, the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine had a 40.3 percent adjusted VE.
The likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection in unvaccinated individuals increased to 2% on day 44 and 4% on day 154 of the study, according to the findings. The risk for individuals who received dose one of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine increased to 1% at day 40, but it stayed less than 1% for the remainder of the follow-up period for those who received dose twp. The risk of infection with the Moderna vaccination remained at 0.5 percent for the whole follow-up period. After 80 days of follow-up, the risk of infection for the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccination had increased to 0.9 percent.
As a result, the current analysis shows that the efficacy of the Oxford-AstraZeneca, Moderna, and Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines was lower than what clinical trials and previous VE studies predicted. Because children under the age of 12 are still not vaccinated, there is a risk of a high transmission rate among the community. To minimise SARS-CoV-2 transmission, efforts must be made to obtain high vaccine coverage among communities.